This is an excerpt from Chapter 5 of the book “Atlantis and the Garden of Eden” by Frederick Dodson. It is best understood in the context of the book.
5.a Cyclopes and Giants
By the time I finished writing this book, I assumed there were no traces left of the skeletons of giants, even though they are universally mentioned in global myth, legend and folklore. Then, out of the blue, someone sent me a book that contained hundreds of newspaper clippings dating back to 19th century America, compiled from respected newspapers all over the country. They all referenced reports of archaeological discoveries of the skulls and skeletons of giants. Even the respected Smithsonian Institution (the government-owned authority on archaeology and ancient history in North America) was in on the action. The book I was sent was named The Giants who ruled Ancient America by Richard Dewhurst. I had not asked for the book and did not know about it, nor did the person who sent it to me necessarily know that it was a topic I was writing about. The book was as useful as it was boring. It was boring because as mentioned, it contained hundreds of newspaper clippings that simply mentioned the discoveries. Almost all these newspaper articles were seventy to a hundred and twenty years old. But as boring as the book was, the reports proved beyond a shadow of a doubt that the existence of giants was commonly accepted knowledge only 100 years ago and that after two world wars, all academic support of the idea disappeared. How could this be?
It is also known from these numerous newspaper reports that many hundreds of skeletons were shipped to the Smithsonian, however the Smithsonian today claims to have no knowledge whatsoever of these. When I Googled this topic, I found no academic or ‘official’ websites on them, yet by reading through the archives of the listed newspapers I was able to verify that they were all genuine. The topic has truly vanished from official academia. So hundreds of skeletons of giant humans were shipped to various museums, examined by renowned scholars, photographed by journalists, written about in scientific journals – and these are no longer viewable, as if they had never existed. The ‘official’ view is that if giants really existed, then there was only one or two of them and as a result of genetic defects. Someone appears to have invested a lot of money to make these stories disappear. So what caused this total information-blackout regarding giants? Where did all the skeletons disappear, skeletons that were commonplace just a hundred years ago? I don’t know, but this would have to be one of the biggest cover-ups in history.
The giants’ narrative is global. They are mentioned throughout the ancient Pacific, in the Philippines, in Hindu texts, ancient China and Japan, in Norse mythology, the Abrahamic religions and the Atlantean cultures we’ve looked at. If remaining fossils of giants are scarce, it is because one of the intended purposes of the Great Flood was to wipe them out. But as implied above, the scarcity may also be due to other reasons. The giants are universally reported to be of great size in height and width and to have enormous strength. The pre-flood giants are said to have been bigger than those of the post-flood era. Giants have also found their way into British, Irish, Scottish and Welsh legends and fairy tales, where they are usually described as extraordinarily stupid beings, but we will disregard such sources because they are too recent. In fact, their stupidity seems to have come about after their decline. Our main focus will be on the oldest sources, to which medieval folklore does not belong. Mythology says outright that they built the megaliths. Celtic and English myths in particular explain the various stone structures of old as having been built by the giants. It would appear that the older, more intelligent giants built the famous monolithic temples, whereas their regressed successors built the stone megaliths. It’s strange that archaeologists continue to reiterate ‘it’s a mystery how such heavy stones were moved’ and yet others say ‘aliens must have moved them’. Why not simply accept the written records – the giants built them!
The Book of Genesis speaks of “the Nephilim”: the offspring of gods who mixed with the ‘daughters of men’. In Genesis we read, among other things:
“Now it came about, when men began to multiply on the face of the land, and daughters were born to them, that the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful; and they took wives for themselves, whomever they chose. Then God said, “My Spirit shall not strive with man forever, because he also is flesh; nevertheless his days shall be one hundred and twenty years.” The Nephilim were on the Earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of men, and they bore children to them. Those were the Giants of old, men of renown.”
The Book of Numbers says:
“So they gave to the sons of Israel a bad report of the land which they had spied out, saying, “The land through which we had gone, in spying it out, is a land that devours its inhabitants; and all the people whom we saw in it are men of great size. There also we saw the Nephilim (the sons of Anak are part of the Nephilim); and we became like grasshoppers in our own sight, and so we were in their sight.”
The Book of Enoch refers to the Nephilim as “fallen angels.” Recently found texts in the Dead Sea Scrolls refer to them as “The Children of Seth” (which is congruent with the Egyptian story of Set conspiring against the higher ranking God Osiris). The giants are believed to be ‘sons of Satan’ by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and based on their Amharic translations of the Bible. According to these traditions, God brought about the global flood because ‘the sons of God’ disobeyed God’s law and sexually intermixed with humans, breeding ‘wicked and terrible’ creatures. The flood was meant to destroy their empire and wipe these creatures off the face of the Earth.
The ‘ancient alien’ interpretation of this would be that extraterrestrials were forbidden to mix with humans, did so anyway, then destroyed Earth. The ‘spiritual’ interpretation is similar, except that instead of having sex with aliens, they had sex with supernatural beings, or such supernatural beings that could either manifest physically or had become physical as a result of their ‘fallen-ness’. Whether the ‘sons of God’ were physical extraterrestrial beings, supernatural beings, interdimensional beings, or some of each is of secondary importance here. The main point is that these stories clearly explain how and why it led to the fall of Atlantis.
The first type of giant I’d like to discuss is the Cyclops. Their story is essential to that of Atlantis. Mention of the Cyclops is not limited to the Greeks or the Basques, despite my Encyclopedia of Mythology’s assurance that “Cyclopes are a figure of Greek mythology.” There is a one-eyed giant named Arimaspi in Scythian legends. Scythia was an ancient empire located in the vicinity of modern day Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan and neighboring countries. Scholars claim that all Scythian giant legends originated in Greece, but I contest that claim. This claim comes from the fact that the Arimaspi were described by the Greek writer Aristeas. This however, does not mean they originated with this writer. Giants are found in other parts of the world, some with no connection to the late Greeks or Scythians. Herodotus says that the word Arimaspi comes from the Persian root words Arima (one) and Spou (eye). According to the Scythians, the giants resided in the mountains and were in perpetual war with griffins. Griffins had the bodies of lions and the heads and wings of eagles (as opposed to the sphinxes that had heads of humans, symbolizing the hybrid mixing with humans). Griffins were the enemy of giants and were associated with the Abrahamic cherubs (winged angelic beings).
In Irish mythology there was a race of giants called the Fomoire, who were semi-divine beings ‘older than the gods’. Most sources confirm that these giants were older than the gods who killed them. Their king was named “Balor” or “Balor of the Evil Eye.” He had one eye and could ‘kill with a glance’. Scholars of Irish myth say that the Fomoire represent the ‘forces of chaos’ as opposed to the “Thuata De Dannann” (who represent the gods’ human civilization). It is said that the Fomoire existed before the flood and some of them were also there after the flood. In Germanic and Norse myth, the warrior Hagen is often depicted as being one-eyed. In ancient Japan there were mentions of the Hitotsume-kozo, one-eyed monsters, said to be ‘fallen mountain Gods’ in Japanese folklore. The Hindu Ramayana tells of a being called Kabandha who was blessed with immortality by Brahma. He was ‘drunk with the wine of youth and beauty’ and roamed the universe enchanting beautiful women. After mocking the sage Ashtavakra for his deformities, he was cursed by the god Rama to have a deformed body and only one eye at the center of his chest, until Rama healed him of the curse.
In the Slavic mythology that encompasses Russia, Poland, Belorussia and several other countries, the word Likho or Licho means evil, bad luck, misfortune or evil fate. The word is used today in these contexts. In medieval times, Likho was personified as either a skinny old woman dressed in black (similar to our witches) or as a goblin who lived in the forests. In Slavic mythology, Likho was also said to be a one-eyed giant who later turned into a demon. This hint is rather remarkable as it is congruent with the Book of Enoch in which the giants, once they had been destroyed, became ‘evil spirits’ and were imprisoned in the Earth’s sphere.
The Psoglav (dog head) of Serbian mythology and the Psoglavac of Croatia was said to be a demonic hybrid of various animals with one eye at the center of its forehead. They lived in caves and subterranean dwellings as did so many other one-eyed demons. Legends found throughout Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro say that these beasts lived in a land of many gemstones but no sunshine. Like other Cyclopes and giants, they were linked to cannibalism, and similar to the English ghoul they are also said to have robbed graves to eat the flesh of corpses.
This monster was referred to as the Ojancanu in Cantabrian legends. He had reddish hair, a reddish beard and one eye. He roamed the woods tearing down trees and cabins, throwing rocks, and fighting with bears and bulls. He usually won these fights due to his superhuman strength. These monsters lived in caves and deep underground caverns and emerged from them to devour humans.
It should be obvious that these separate cultures are referring to the same being and that there is some truth in these tales. The ancient Greeks tell us that Cyclopes were members of the primordial race of giants. The two-eyed giants were called the Titans and they were builders and craftsmen – the Cyclopes were their deformed cousins. Cyclopes were the sons of Gaia (the great Earth Goddess or mother of all humankind) and Uranus (the male god of the sky). Both the Titans and the Cyclopes were later defeated by younger gods (the Olympians). One of the more famous Cyclopes is called Polyphemus, the son of Poseidon and Thoosa. Thoosa was a nymph of the ocean. It is interesting to note that this Cyclops in particular was a product of a sexual relationship between the Atlantic god (Poseidon) and a ‘nymph of the ocean’ (a human Atlantean). Poseidon’s symbol is the trident, which is also a symbol often linked to Atlantis. This ancient memory may later have been adopted by medieval Christians when they displayed demons holding pitchforks.
Polyphemus was said to live on a distant island (which historians believe is Sicily and which I think is Atlantis). The Titans and Cyclopes were the builders of ‘great stone structures’ and the “Cyclopean Walls.” To this day, scientists have been unable to explain how certain structures such as the Temple of Baalbek in Lebanon or the pyramids of Giza, were built. But if we consider the existence of giants, building such structures becomes feasible.
Modern academia is oblivious to these connections. Some say that stories of Cyclopes are ‘fiction’, others say Cyclopes may be ‘blacksmiths who injured their eyes’ and yet others claim that Cyclopes are false interpretations of dwarf elephants who had such large skulls that often one eye was concealed. The stupidity of such explanations baffle me, as they have nothing whatsoever in common with the stories.
The Quran and the Biblical Old Testament are full of stories of giants. The Old Testament mentions pre-flood giants such as the Nephilim, the Anakim, giants in Egypt and post-flood giants such as Goliath and Og.
The Anakim lived during the ‘days of Abraham’ in the land of Canaan near Hebron (modern day West Bank; Palestinian territory). And yes, megaliths of incredible size and age are also found all over Israel and Palestine. The Israelites were terrified of the giants, and believed they were the descendants of the pre-flood Nephilim. It was Joshua who expelled all except a few who found refuge in Gaza, Gath and Ashdod. The Israelites believe that the Philistines are descendants of these formidable and unwelcome people. Here again we see that the modern day conflict between Palestinians (Philistines) and Israelis goes back a long, long time. History repeats itself. Of course this is not to imply that modern Palestinians are ‘horrible people’, but merely to show how old these conflicts are. Genetically speaking, there is not that much difference between the various peoples occupying the area today.
One of the last remaining giants, Goliath, is said to have descended from the Anakim. Therefore the Nephilim spawned the Anakim and the Anakim spawned the last surviving giants. Before the flood, giants were a common sight, yet after the flood they gradually died out or were slain by their enemies. They were unwelcome globally due to the common perception of their being the spawn of fallen angels who had committed the sin of mixing with humans.
Og was another of the last giants and is mentioned both in The Quran and The Bible. He is said to have been an Amorite king of the country of Bashan. He and his army were slain by Moses and his army. Og lived from the time of Noah and is said to have survived the flood along with Noah. He had “the height of Cedars.” This would be quite tall, as cedars of the region are easily around 130 feet or 40 meters tall. The Book of Deuteronomy however, says that his bedstead was 13.5 feet (four meters) long, which would make him only a little more than twice our size. Rabbinic sources disagree with this, claiming that he was much bigger and that the measurement used in the book – namely cubits – refers to the cubits of giants. Hebraic legends say that Og is from Rujm el-Hiri, which is a megalithic site in the Golan Heights. That site has a rather interesting Atlantean stone-circle:
Another Hebrew word for giant is “Rephaim,” and Og is described as “the last of the Rephaim.” Bashan is referred to as the “Land of Rephaism” and contains many gigantic megaliths said to be more than 7,000 years old. The Book of Deuteronomy claims that at the time the book was written, Og’s bedstead could still be marveled at as a novelty and was apparently a tourist attraction.
What lends credence to the actual existence of Og is that he is also mentioned on Phoenician inscriptions, as well as in older Canaanite Ugaritic texts. In those texts he is revered as a giant king. Finally, Og is mentioned in the apocryphal Book of Giants. The Book of Giants was only recently discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran and it details the entire history of the giants in congruency with Biblical texts. Amazingly, the book not only mentions the Deluge and the Nephilim, but it also identifies the Sumerian half-god Gilgamesh as a giant who survived the flood and built the walls of Uruk with his superhuman strength, to protect his people against external threats. The Book of Giants is perfectly consistent with Sumerian accounts. Gilgamesh was two-thirds a god, one-third a human.
The giants are even mentioned by the historian Flavius Josephus:
“For which reason they removed their camp to Hebron; and when they had taken it, they slew all the inhabitants. There were till then left the race of giants, who had bodies so large, and countenances so entirely different from other men, that they were surprising to the sight, and terrible to the hearing. The bones of these men are still shown to this very day unlike to any credible relations of other men.”
Simply put, the giants were antediluvian offspring of ‘fallen angels’ who had sexual relations with mortal women. This nicely coincides with Greek mythology, according to which the gods mixed with women, bred giants and made other gods very unhappy. So unhappy that they decided to destroy the Earth.
The Daityas are the giants in Hinduism (not to be mistaken with the Hindu sun-gods, the Adityas). Their parents Diti and Kashyapa fought against the gods and devas (the Hindu equivalent of angels) because they were jealous of them (which is quite congruent with all that we’ve heard so far). The Daityas are also referred to as rakshasas, which is the general Hindu word for demons.
Daityas are said to have been human-looking in appearance, just much bigger, and they supposedly lived up to one hundred thousand years. Despite their long life spans they were unhappy creatures who strove to achieve immortality. For this purpose they sought the nectar of immortality. This idea is somewhat reminiscent of eating the apple from the “Tree of Knowledge” but being prevented from eating from the “Tree of Immortality” and then being cast out of the Garden of Eden or Atlantis. It is also said that the Daityas could shape shift into nagas by means of magic. This is an extraordinarily important hint for the Atlantis-researcher. Nagas are beings with the head of a human and the tail of a serpent. What is being said here is that the giants could change their appearance to that of a serpent. This perhaps explains why both the giants and the serpent were considered adversaries by those who destroyed Atlantis and founded the Abrahamic religions. If the serpents and giants are either identical or allied, this explains all the mythological accounts across the world. Quite incredibly, the Hindu account also mentions that a great Deluge started as a consequence of the battles between Daityas and other gods. It is said that the Daityas were at one time, hundreds of thousands of years ago, good gods who were interested in science, arts, and the welfare of the people in the universe and that they were highly skilled. Once they discovered the Earth however, they became immersed in its pleasures and feastings and as a result their consciousness descended until their lifestyle finally decayed and they were destroyed. Something that will interest the ‘ancient aliens’ enthusiasts is that the Daityas are said to have resided in ‘flying cities’ and used vehicles that went ‘up to the sky’. One thing we find in the temple depictions and statues of the Indian continent is just how terrifying and ill-willed many of these beings appeared, at least in the eyes of humans.
Native Americans also speak of giants in their legends, something that would be expected for descendants of Atlantis. The Paiute people of California, Nevada, Utah, Oregon, Idaho and Arizona have an oral history that refers to the Si-Te-Cah who was a tribe of red-haired and cannibalistic giants. A comparison to other sources seems to indicate that the late post-flood giants were indeed cannibals, or ‘wild men of the forest’ as the Basques say. They descended into cannibalism. The word Pa-Ute is translated by anthropologists as “Water Ute,” apparently to indicate that they ‘came from the waters’. Their language is actually related to Aztec.
In ancient Greece, the Titans ruled during a legendary ‘golden age’. Atlas is the son of Poseidon (Poseidon is, in my view, the Titan who founded Atlantis). The Titans were said to be immortal giants of incredible strength. They were descendants of the primary gods Gaia and Uranus and were eventually overthrown and beaten by the Olympian gods with the help of Heracles. The war between the old Titans and the younger Olympian gods was intergenerational and was also a war of the more earthly gods against the dominant heavenly gods. The same scenario is reflected in the Biblical rebellion of the serpent against God, of Lucifer against Christians, of the Scandinavian jötunn and Vanir against the Aesir, of the Babylonian Enuma Elish epic, the Hittite “Kingship of Heaven” story, and so forth. Some of Greek mythology has, here and there, a little bit of a friendlier disposition to the ‘Titan’ side of the story. In other words, rather than seeing Titans as evil adversaries, they are shown to be gods who had a different view of Earth’s direction. Of course there is still the problem of their descent in behavior and consciousness over time, their mixing with humans, and the apparently deformed beings to which they gave birth.
One view that does not side with the Titans, belongs to that of the philosopher Olympiodorus, according to which humans consist of two parts: Their bodies, which are of Titanic nature, and their souls which are of a divine nature. I personally tend to agree with this view in that humans are part flesh, part spirit. The dual nature of humanity being rooted both on Earth and in higher realms is what makes us unique. Scholars consider Olympiodorus’ report to be of an earlier origin. Throughout Greek mythology, the Titans are also accused of senseless bloodshed, aggression and cannibalism.
The jötunn of Norse mythology existed in opposition to the gods. Norse accounts say that all monsters and deformed beings of legends and fairy tales were descendants of the giants. The well-known “Battle of Ragnarök” describes how the giants attacked Asgard. As a consequence, the whole world was destroyed.The giants were considered to be the offspring of the gods for many generations, despite their being at war with each other.
In Bulgarian mythology, giants were called Ispolini and they lived in the mountains during a pre-human age. They ate raw meat and often fought against dragons. From such accounts we can see that much of the original story that has been best preserved in Hindu and Greek accounts, have been lost here. In most European folklore, legends and fairy tales, giants were described as the descendants of previous lost civilizations. That means their narrative picked up in post-flood times. European folklore agreed that the giants built the large stone monuments and walls. Ancient English, Welsh, Irish and Scottish poems, epics and legends are full of references to conflicts and confrontations with giants, many of these post-flood. As in native North America, the stories of Northern Europe seem to have preserved less knowledge of ancient times than in those of the Greeks, Anatolians and Hindus. I believe the reason for this is that most of the destruction occurred in the Northern Atlantic, whereas Anatolia, the Middle East and India may have been somewhat spared. If we follow the accounts of the Tamils, their greatest cataclysm was 18,000 years ago, whereas the one 12,000 years ago was less impactful on their civilization. And perhaps this is why texts from India contain so much more detail about those times.
One of the many giant-myths of Asia is that of the giant Oni, which translates to ‘demons’ or ‘trolls’. According to myth, the Oni were part of the spirit world, before they became physical beings. It appears that in their higher state they were spiritual beings, and as their consciousness descended they became physical. This, once again, puts at rest the debate of whether they were physical or supernatural, spiritual or extraterrestrial. Although it does appear that at one stage, they had aircraft and possibly even spaceships capable of interstellar travel; they cannot really be viewed as ‘extraterrestrial’. So if one really needs to speculate on ‘ancient aliens’, one could say that ‘the gods’ were spiritual beings first, then became powerful physical beings (not unlike aliens), and then were simply physical beings of formidable appearance in their final stages.
Japanese mythology confirms that the Oni could at one time shape shift, changing forms in order to deceive and devour humans. Here again, we see the cannibalistic theme, as well as the idea that they may have taken on the appearance of serpents and other creatures. In later accounts, these abilities were lost and the Oni simply became ogre-like giants who roamed the Earth, with wild hair, claws and long horns growing from their heads. The ‘horns growing from their heads’ coincides with our own depictions of demons. Most Oni resemble humans, but some are deformed as in having only one eye (like the Cyclopes) or extra fingers and toes. Their skin is often red or blue and they are frequently shown wearing tiger-skin clothing and carrying iron clubs. Similar depictions have been found in Northern European folklore. The Biblical Book of Samuel also mentioned that certain giants had “six fingers and six toes.”
The primary giant in Mayan mythology was named Zipacna, and he was the son of the male and female Vucub Caquix and Chimalma respectively. Interestingly, the word Vucub Caquix refers to the number seven, a number encoded into many Atlantean tales. This entity is also described as a ‘flying demon’. Zipacna was considered to be arrogant, rebellious and violent. As in Greek mythology, he was defeated by heroes. The Mayan epic Popol Vuh tells of how Zipacna was so strong that he could carry large pieces of wood and stone for the construction of buildings. He tended to mock and ridicule others for having less strength than him, hence it was decided that due to his arrogance and evil spirit, he should be killed. Zipacna went into hiding by digging subterranean tunnels, and it was believed that he had passed away. The humans completed the construction of their buildings without him but upon finishing, Zipacna returned and crushed their homes. The people who died as a result, are said to have entered the heavens through the stars known as the Pleiades. This is yet another fascinating synchrony with Greek mythology, according to which the Pleiades – who were the offspring of gods mixing with humans – committed suicide and then travelled to the system of seven stars that was named after them. Divine twin heroes decided to take revenge on Zipacna, therefore ridding the world of gods who had become arrogant. They caused ‘a mountain to collapse upon him’. This is possibly a reference to the destruction of the Earth. Amazingly, Japanese mythology echoes Mayan mythology almost verbatim, merely using other names. So rather than Zipacna hiding in caves and subterranean dwellings, it was Amaterasu who withdrew into caves to hide. The exact same story is found among the Basques who claim that the evil ones retreated into caves to avoid discovery by the gods. These locations are referred to as the underworld in Greek mythology, and as hell in Abrahamic religions. The descent of consciousness among these fallen gods therefore coincides with their retreat into physical lower levels as well.
According to the Ayyavazhi religion of Southern India, a giant called Kroni was the first evil being born into the universe. He manifested himself into many different shapes and forms. He was constantly hungry and devoured everything he could get his hands on. Seeing his destructive nature, the god Mayon planned to destroy him. For this purpose he sent various avatars and teachers to Earth, such as Rama and Krishna, to counteract Kroni’s negative influence. Finally, Mayon achieved his goal by slicing Kroni into six pieces and thereby ending that age of history.
Of course mythology and religion are not the only sources of information on giants. If they really existed, there would be other evidence. In fact, they were also mentioned by renowned historians such as Flavius Josephus and Herodotus. In those days the giants no longer existed, but their skeletons, corpses and coffins could still be viewed. Herodotus tells of how the Spartans uncovered the body of Orestes which was “seven cubits long.” That equates to 10 feet or 3.4 meters. Plutarch tells of how the Greeks uncovered the body of Theseus, the son of Poseidon (a god) and Aegeus (a human) and how his body was unusually large. According to myth, Theseus was the founder of Athens.
Bones and skeletons of giants have been dug up and discovered throughout history and have always sparked ‘controversy’ and ridicule from the cult called the ‘scientific establishment’, especially in modern times.
This exaggerated animosity toward our true ancient history may have been perpetuated deliberately and for very specific reasons. Could knowledge of both our history and technological remnants thereof, have been kept a secret by the ancient elite-class, the priestly and royal castes? Might these ‘keepers of the secrets’ have been doing so to prevent what they thought would lead to the destruction of mankind? If true, then advanced knowledge could be destructive for those not ready for it. Advanced knowledge is guarded and concealed, even to this day.
The “Giant of Castelnau” was an 11.6 foot tall man (3.6 meters) discovered by an anthropologist in the year 1890 in France. He is one of the giants accepted by some academics as ‘authentic’ and thus considered ‘one of the largest humans to have ever existed’ (this is after they first attacked and ridiculed the find). Those scientists, who do accept the find as authentic, refer to the giant as ‘abnormal’, as if he were the exception. As we have surmised, he is by no means one of the largest beings to have ever existed, but merely one of the giants of a later generation, from a time when they were already in decline. The bones were dated to be somewhere between 6,000 and 8,000 years old.
In 1894, both the French press and the New York Times reported the discovery of bones of human giants by anthropologists at Montpellier, France. They were said to be up to 15 feet (4.5 meters) in height. The bones were sent to universities and museums in Paris, after which they disappeared and nothing was ever heard of them again. The incidents of widespread reports of such discoveries by reputable scientists and their subsequent disappearances are quite common in this area of research, once again bringing up the possibility of some kind of secret agenda.
Other skeletons of giants have been found around the world, as well as very large human footprints, and extremely large tools and artifacts. Around 50 years ago, after discovering giant remains in Indonesia, scientists devised a new word for them – “Meganthropus.” But this word is meanwhile considered ‘invalid’. A question that often arises is: Who is it that is deciding the validity and invalidity of various scientific concepts? In encyclopedias and university texts we learn of various ideas being considered ‘valid or invalid’, but we rarely learn who exactly the source of such arbitrary labeling is.